IOT Fundamentals

Individual Officiating Techniques (IOT) is the most important foundation for either 2 Person Officiating (2PO) or 3 Person Officiating (3PO). It is evident that in the past 15 years there has been a heavy focus
on 3PO (namely for the mechanical movements of the referees on the floor). This has led to a lack of knowledge in how to actually referee individual play phases in the game – this being the fundamental
skills that referees need to possess in order to process and facilitate the correct decision. These are inherent skills of IOT and are similarly relevant to both 2PO and 3PO.

In analysing play phases and calling the game, some basic principles are necessary to follow:

Have proper distance from the play –
Keeping an open angle and remaining stationary. Do not move too close to the play and narrow your field of vision!

Distance & Stationary
The priority of the referee in an on ball competitive match-up is to
focus the attention on the illegality of the defensive player whilst
keeping the offensive ball handler in your field of vision.

Referee the defence
Always look for illegal actions to call.

Have an Active Mindset
Have the key players (1on1) or as many players as possible in your
field of vision in order to see any illegal action. 45° and Open angle
Understand when the play has ended so you can move to the
next play –mentally / physically. Stay with the play until it is over!

The lack of adhering to the above mentioned principles are the main reasons for wrong decisions being made on the floor. Simple as that!

When referees are able to have proper primary coverage for all obvious plays, it will substantially increase the quality of refereeing. These obvious plays, if missed, are the determining factors in peoples’ mind as to what constitutes an acceptable level of officiating.

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